Alexander had ridden Bucephalus into every one of his battles in Europe and Asia, so when it died he was grief-stricken. He colonized it with Greeks, and founded a city named Alexandropolis. The Assakenoi offered stubborn resistance from their mountain strongholds of Massaga, Bazira and Ora.
The Macedonians spent two hard years in Bactria fighting a guerilla war against the followers of Bessus and the Sogdian ruler Spitamenes. The Alexander episode does not find much mention in the entire written record, that is the strangest aspect of it. The army continued advancing as far as the river Hydaspes but at this point the Macedonians refused to go farther as reports were coming of far more larger and dangerous armies ahead equipped with many elephants and chariots.
Strabo, the Greek historian wrote: The only explanation is Ambhi was driving a hard bargain. While the Porus-Alexander story is legendary, there is no guarantee that it actually took place.
For he alone disdains to learn it. His post of chiliarch grand vizier was left unfilled. He conquered the lands between rivers Tigris and Euphrates and found the Persian army at the plains of Gaugamela, near modern Irbil in Iraq, which according to the exaggerated accounts of antiquity was said to number a million men.
In fact, Arrian and other Greeks say the Indians were relentless in their attacks on the invaders. Battle of Granicus With the conquered territories firmly in Macedonian control, Alexander completed the final preparations for the invasion of Asia.
His increasingly Oriental behavior eventually led to conflict with the Macedonian nobles and some Greeks in the train. Some tribes surrendered peacefully; others did not.
For instance, Arrian writes in Alexander Anabasis that the Indians were the noblest among all Asians. Fearing the prospects of facing other powerful Indian armies and exhausted by years of campaigning, his army mutinied at the Hyphasis River the modern Beas Riverrefusing to march further east. The most famous of these, founded at the mouth of the Nile in B.
But in pitched battle the striking force was the cavalryand the core of the army, should the issue still remain undecided after the cavalry charge, was the infantry phalanx9, strong, armed with foot spears and shields, and the 3, men of the royal battalions, the hypaspists.
Alexander himself openly called himself Son of Zeus during a visit to Siwah in B. In autumn Hephaestion died in Ecbatanaand Alexander indulged in extravagant mourning for his closest friend; he was given a royal funeral in Babylon with a pyre costing 10, talents.
Alexander being crowned by Nike. This victory exposed western Asia Minor to the Macedonians, and most cities hastened to open their gates.
He had come to envisage a joint ruling people consisting of Macedonians and Persians, and this served to augment the misunderstanding that now arose between him and his people.
He first faced resistance in the Kunar, Swat, Buner and Peshawar valleys where the Aspasioi and Assakenoi, known in Hindu texts as Ashvayana and Ashvakayana, stopped his advance.
Alexander remained in Egypt until the middle ofand then returned to Tyre before facing Darius. In July Alexander was at Thapsacus on the Euphrates. At the battle of the Hydaspes riverAlexander defeated Porus and made him a satrap of the latter kingdom.
As a general Alexander is among the greatest the world has known. Crossing the Oxus, he sent his general Ptolemy in pursuit of Bessus, who had meanwhile been overthrown by the Sogdian Spitamenes. But their initial victory did not last for long as Antipater returned with a large army, defeated the rebels, and regained Greece.
In earlyAlexander sent general Parmenio to occupy the Syrian cities and himself marched down the Phoenician coast where he received the surrender of all major cities except the island city of Tyre which refused to grant him access to sacrifice at the temple of the native Phoenician god Melcart.
He therefore spoke to his army and tried to persuade them to march further into India, but Coenus pleaded with him to change his mind and return, saying the men "longed to again see their parents, their wives and children, their homeland".
At Gordium in Phrygiatradition records his cutting of the Gordian knotwhich could only be loosed by the man who was to rule Asia; but this story may be apocryphal or at least distorted. Why pay off a vassal?Failed Indian invasion by Alexander of Macedon. May 11, Sensing defeat they called for a truce, which Porus accepted.
The Indian king struck a bargain – in return for Ambhi’s territories, which would secure his frontiers, Porus would assist the Macedonians in leaving India safely. I have an interest in his india campaign, but. Nov 09, · Alexander the Great was an ancient Macedonian ruler and one of history’s greatest military minds who—as King of Macedonia and Persia—established the largest empire the ancient world had ever.
Alexander III of Macedon, known as Alexander the Great (21 July BCE – 10 or 11 June BCE), was the son of King Philip II of mint-body.com became king upon his father’s death in BCE and went on to conquer most of the known world of his day.
He is known as 'the great' both for his military genius and his diplomatic skills in handling. A Study of Combined Arms Warfare by Alexander the Great mint-body.comIS) Major Robert B.
Pederson, mint-body.com 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATIONNAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) campaign, the Indian campaign, and the wars of the Diadochi. Map of Ancient Greece and Macedonia 4 2. Battle of Chaeronea 18 3.
Map of Thebes 31. Why didn't Alexander invade India? Both sides saved face through the reappointment of Porus as Satrap by Alexander.
Indian history tells of the glorious war won by Porus against Alexander, and Western history tells of the glorious battle won by Alexander against Porus. Alexander being the great king would have had a victory in that battle. Near the site of the battle of the river Hydaspes—the costliest victory of his Indian campaign—Alexander founded the city of Bucephala, named for his favorite horse, which was mortally wounded.Download